Languages are the medium to communicate with each other. We use the language by speech or by writing or by actions to convey our messages or ideas to others. Languages are very important not only for human being but also for computers. Computers performs operations by using the instructions given by us. That instructions are used for programming certain kind of operations. A set of rules for instructing a computer are called programming language.
Computers can understand the machine level languages which are in the form of 0’s and 1’s. The 0’s and 1’s forms are called binaries. Computers only understands this language. The instructions are in the form of these binaries which helps the computer to do a specific tasks.
Types of Languages
There are two types of languages which are used to communicate with computer.
1. Low Level Language
* Assembly Language
* Machine Lanuage
2.High Level Language
* C & C++
Low Level Language
Low level languages are programming languages which are very close to communicate with computer to human beings than machine languages. These languages can easily understand by a computer. There are 2 types of low level languages. They are Assembly languages and High level languages. The main function of this low level language is operate, manage and manipulate computer hardware and systems components.
1. Machine Languages
The machine languages are low level programming languages that are used to communicate with computer. It uses machine codes such as 0’s and 1’s binary codes. These languages are easily understandable by the computer. The binary code 0 is for turning off pulses and 1 for turning on the pulses. The main advantages of this machine languages are it may not be needed a separate translator to translate the instruction to the binary codes.
2. Assembly Languages
These languages are low level languages used as a language for programming the computer. Assembly languages have the same structure and commands used in the machine languages but instead of machine codes it uses words or mnemonic codes. But the computer can only understand the machine languages, so a translator is needed to translate assembly language to machine language. Assembler is used as a translator here. It translates the assembly languages to machine understandable language.
High Level Language
High level languages are programming languages which are very close to human languages. They are very easy to read, write and maintain system languages. They are user-friendly languages. There is a need for a translator to translate the human readable language to machine language, Interpreter and Compilers are used to solve this problem. The function of Interpreter and compiler is to convert the program written in high level language to machine language.
Following are the some high level languages and their functions:-
COBOL: Business applications
FORTRAN: Engineering & Scientific Applications
PASCAL: General use and as a teaching tool
C & C++ : General Purpose – currently most popular
PROLOG: Artificial Intelligence
JAVA : General Purpose – gaining popularity rapidly