Smart antenna for mobile communication
Antenna is the electronic device which is used to convert electronic power to radio waves. A smart antenna transmits and receives multiple radio frequencies at one time. It increases data transfer rates and reduces errors by handling the several copies of the same information. It can be used virtually for any application that involves radio signals. They are mostly used in domestic and commercial wireless networks.
Smart antennas are most popular in recent years. It naturally provide increased security, reduced interference, increased bandwidth. This capability can be improve the performance of mobile communication systems. It forms transmit and receive beams in mobile communication systems.
Smart antenna’s in mobile communication enhances the capability of mobile and cellular system. It is an array of elements connected to a digital signal processor. It provides faster bit rate, multi use interference, space division multiplexing (SDMA), adaptive SDMA, increase in range, multi path mitigation, reduction of errors due to multi path fading, best suitability of multi-carrier modulations. It effectively reduces the power consumption.
Today mobile communication system can not be made without the use of smart antennas. It can be used as both receive and transmit both at the base station and the user terminal. This can also track the user within a cell via direction of arrival algorithms. When passing through multi-path, the signals are delayed, that causes the signal strength to be weakened at a receiver and hence receiving quality is also reduced. It is known as the Raleigh Fading.
One of the technologies that can contribute to the improvement of wireless systems is the adaptive/smart antenna. The next generation communication services require more channel capacity for using higher frequency bandwidth area for high speed data communication.