All you Want to Know about LPG and LNG Cooking Gas – GAIL Pipeline Project

What’s the Difference Between LPG and LNG ?


LNG is normally warmed to make natural gas. Natural gas is gas pumped from the Earth’s crust that has been converted into a liquid. It is used for a wide variety of purposes like heat and power generation. It is used across the residential, commercial and industrial sectors for purposes as diverse as heating, cooking, generating electricity and manufacturing a wide variety of products. The gas is odorless and colorless, and when burned, it creates far less emissions than petroleum.


Uses of LNG
  • Natural gas can be used to heat homes, office buildings, schools, hospitals, and other structures.
  • It is used to provide fuel for cooking and household appliances such as water heaters, clothes dryers, air conditioners, space heaters, and more
  • Natural gas is also often used in dehumidification and on-site power generation.
  • Natural gas is commonly used as a raw material in products such as plastics, paints, fertilizers, dyes, antifreeze, and photographic film.
  • LNG is also used as a fuel for heavy-duty and other vehicles.
How LNG is Created?
  • LNG consists primarily of methane.
  • When the natural gas is cooled to minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit (126.7 degrees Celsius).
  • During the cooling process the other components of natural gas such as water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur compounds, and other hydrocarbons are gradually removed.
  • Thereby leaving almost pure methane.
  • It becomes a liquid that is easier to store.
  • From there, it can be transported in a supertanker, much like oil.
  • Currently, that’s the easiest way to move natural gas over long distances.
Loading Process of LNG
  • The LNG is loaded onto double-hulled ships which are used for both safety and insulating purposes.
  • Once the ship arrives at the receiving port, the LNG is typically off-loaded into well-insulated storage tanks.
  • Regasification is used to convert the LNG back into its gas form, which enters the domestic pipeline distribution system and is ultimately delivered to the end-user.
LNG in Vehicles

Today LNG is used as a fuel for heavy-duty and other vehicles. Using LNG and natural gas to fuel vehicles reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 30-40 percent and also saves vehicle maintenance costs. Liquefied Natural Gas fuel allows more energy to be stored on-board the vehicle in a smaller space.


In GAIL Natural Gas has been liquefied at – (Minus) 160 degree Centigrade. Natural Gas is liquefied to facilitate transportation in large volumes in cryogenic tankers across sea. GAIL as a major pipeline operator has contributed to the growth and development of natural gas pipeline infrastructure and natural gas market. It has existing 10,977 Kms. of robust gas pipeline infrastructure with a capacity of 210 MMSCMD. GAIL’s existing natural gas pipeline network has covers 16 States and 2 Union Territories (Puducherry & Dadra Nagar Haveli). GAIL provides LNG services to various sectors. They are as follows.

  • Generation of electricity by utilities
  • Fertilizer Industry
  • Industrial
  • Domestic and commercial
  • Automotive

LPG is a non-renewable source of energy. It is extracted from crude oil and natural gas. LPG is stored under pressure, as a liquid, in a gas bottle. It turns back into gas vapour when you release some of the pressure in the gas bottle by turning on your appliance. LPG is including Propane, Butane, Propylene, Butadiene, Butylene and Isobutylene, as well as mixtures of these gases. The two most common are Propane and Butane. LPG is a mixture of propane and butane, which could be liquefied at very low pressure making its transport and use quite easy. It is supplied in gas bottles that are either exchanged or refilled on site by LPG tankers. LPG comes from petroleum refining as well as natural gas processing.

Process of Refining LPG

LPG is produced during natural gas processing and petroleum refining. LPG is isolated from the petrochemical mixtures by separation from natural gas or by the refining of crude oil.

  • The processes begin by drilling oil wells.
  • The gas or oil mixture is piped out of the well and into a gas trap.
  • That separates the stream into crude oil and  wet gas, which contains LPG and natural gas.
  • The heavier crude oil sinks to the bottom of the trap and is then pumped into an oil storage tank for refining.
  • Crude oil undergoes a variety of refining processes, including catalytic cracking, crude distillation, and others
  • One of the refined products is LPG.
Uses of LPG
  • LPG in Homes: Cooking, Hot Water, Heating, BBQ
  • Electricity Generation: Generators, Gas Turbines, Co-gen & Tri-Gen
  • LPG can be used to fuel electric generators for residential applications.
  • Leisure: Boats, Recreational Vehicles
  • Hospitality Industry uses the LPG in Hotels, Restaurants, Clubs, Pubs
  • Autogas, Taxis, Buses, Commercial Vehicles are used this for transportation
  • In Agriculture LPG is used for Crop Drying, Greenhouses, Flame Weeding
  • In Hot Air Balloons, Ice Rink Resurfacing used this LPG
  • Hot air balloons are probably the biggest leisure users of LPG
  • LPG is popular with camp ground and caravan park operators.

GAIL is the first company in India to own and operate pipelines for LPG transmission. It has 2038 km LPG pipeline network 1,415 km. GAIL’s LPG is an eco-friendly fuel and provides a cheaper and effective means of reducing pollution and increasing productivity. Their LPG is being supplied to PSU Oil Marketing Companies namely IOCL, BPCL and HPCL ex-GPUs at Import Parity Price.

Difference Between LPG and LNG

LPG and LNG both are used in essentially the same way but they are also different in many ways.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquefied Natural Gas


Propane is C3H8 Methane is CH4
That is liquid near room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It has been compressed at very low temperatures and is transported as a liquid
This product has very little methane and butane and is primarily propane (C3) It is Primarily methane.
LPG is stored under pressure as a liquid, in a gas bottle LNG cannot be converted to a liquid by pressure alone
The estimate of energy density of LPG is 65% compared to diesel and about 75% compared to petrol (gasoline) The energy density is about 60% compared to diesel the fuel costs are much lower
The Larger molecules of hydrocarbons are used. The smaller molecules of hydrocarbons are used.
LPG don’t have as much pressure, they can be compressed into a liquid. LNG having a much higher pressure that cannot be compressed into liquids unless extremely high pressures are applied.
LPG requires an air to gas ratio of approximately 25:1 for proper combustion The natural gas requires a 10:1 ratio for proper combustion
The calorific value of LPG is 93.2MJ/m3 The calorific value of LNG is 38.7MJ/m3
LPG (propane) is more dense than air (1.5219:1) LNG is lighter than air (0.5537:1)
How Dangerous is LPG and LNG?

LPG is more dangerous than LNG because LPG is more dense than air. LNG lighter than air so it is less dangerous.

How do you find LPG & Natural gas leakage?

The gaseous fuels industry& House has added odourants to LPG and Natural Gas. So that people can detect gas leaks with nothing more than their noses. The leaking gas would create a dangerous condition that could lead to an explosion or fire.

The science of odourants and Ethyl Mercaptan is almost universally recognized as the best choice for finding the leakage in gases. It is the most commonly used odourising agent.

In the case of LPG, the Ethyl Mercaptan is added to the gas as it leaves the main storage terminals. The amount added and the processes are both carefully controlled. The smell of Ethyl Mercaptan is often compared to rotten cabbage.

Some people Can’t Smell The Odour. This may be cause illness, if they have been continuously exposed to the smell. So there should be  installing a gas detector. The Gas detectors emit an audio alarm when gas is detected, similar to a smoke alarm.

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