Wi-Fi – Wireless Local Area Networking Technology




Wi-Fi is a wireless local area networking technology with devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. This technology can be used by different devices like personal computers, video-game consoles, phones and tablets, digital cameras, smart TVs, digital audio players, modern printers, etc. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a WLAN and a wireless access point. Access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (66 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors.

It commonly uses the 2.4 gigahertz (12 cm) UHF and 5.8 gigahertz (5 cm) SHF ISM radio bands. Only those who is within the range of wireless modem can access the Wi-Fi network. Wi-Fi is the one of the famous communication data wirelessly, within a fixed area.

The IEEE 802.11 standard is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802).

There is no wired connection between the sender and receiver by using radio frequency. It uses radio waves to wirelessly transmit information across a LAN, the reach of which can be extended by a Wi-Fi range extender. To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller.


The combination of computer and interface controller is called a station. For all stations that share a single radio frequency communication channel, transmissions on this channel are received by all stations within range. A carrier wave is used to transmit the data. The data is organized in packets on an Ethernet link, referred to as “Ethernet frames”.

Uses of Wi-Fi

  • Internet access
  • City-wide Wi-Fi
  • Campus-wide Wi-Fi
  • Wi-Fi ad hoc versus Wi-Fi direct

The main issue with wireless network security is its simplified access to the network compared to traditional wired networks such as Ethernet. To enable Wi-Fi, one merely needs to be within the range of the Wi-Fi network. Most business networks protect sensitive data and systems by attempting to disallow external access. Enabling wireless connectivity reduces security if the network uses inadequate or no encryption.

An attacker who has gained access to a Wi-Fi network router can initiate a DNS spoofing attack against any other user of the network by forging a response before the queried DNS server has a chance to reply.

Securing Methods

  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
  • Advanced Encryption Standard
  • Wi-Fi Protected Setup
  • Virtual Private Networks

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